Skip to page content


Listen to audio:

Composed: 1918-1919, 1924

Length: c. 20 minutes

Orchestration: 3 flutes (2nd + 3rd = piccolo), 3 oboes (3rd = English horn), 3 clarinets (2nd = E-flat clarinet; 3rd = bass clarinet), 3 bassoons (3rd = contrabassoon), 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, percussion (bass drum, cymbals, large snare drum, soprano snare drum, tam-tam, triangle, xylophone), harp, piano, celesta, organ, and strings

First Los Angeles Philharmonic performance: March 28, 1957, Alfred Wallenstein conducting

About this Piece

Menyhért Lengyel’s story A csodálatos mandarin (The Miraculous Mandarin) a “pantomime grotesque,” as he called it, was published in a Hungarian literary magazine in 1917. Some months after its appearance, a Budapest newspaper wrote, “A composer of great European fame, who is reluctant to shed his incognito, is setting it to music.” No one could have claimed “great European fame” for Bartók at the time. The likelihood is that the composer being coyly suggested was Ernö Dohnányi, whose widow – many years after the fact – wrote: “[Dohnányi] could not undertake to set it to music. First, he had two of his operas to finish. Second, and this was the main reason, he thought the theme of grand guignol better suited to Bartók’s style.” Dohnányi's involvement with, or even knowledge of the Mandarin tale, may have been a press fabrication (it happened even then). As Lengyel recorded in his memoirs: “I wrote this pantomime story in 1916, without any express purpose, and it appeared in the New Year’s Day [1917] edition of Nyugat [West].” As it turned out, Bartók read the story, immediately wrote some music reflecting its content and played it for Lengyel, who was thrilled. The two, who had not met before, became collaborators and fast friends.

(Lengyel, who wrote numerous successful plays in Hungarian and German, also worked on film projects in Berlin, London, and later Hollywood. He wrote the original screen play for what would become the Greta Garbo hit Ninotchka in 1940; his play Catherine the Great provided material for the film of the same name starring Elisabeth Bergner – 1934; and his name is mentioned in several sources in connection with the Josef von Sternberg/Marlene Dietrich The Blue Angel, 1932, although it does not appear in the official credits. The Ernst Lubitsch comedy To Be or Not to Be, with Carole Lombard and Jack Benny, is based on a short story by Lengyel. He also wrote a dramatization of Lady Chatterley’s Lover, which Aldous Huxley considered, but never around to, adapting for the English stage.)

In the summer of 1918, Bartók wrote to his wife: “It will be hellish music. The prelude before the curtain goes up will be very short and sound like pandemonium... the audience will be introduced to the [thieves’] den at the height of the hurly-burly of the metropolis.” Wartime exigencies, however, delayed the completion of the score until late in 1919 and the orchestration, frequently interrupted, wasn’t accomplished for another three years.

Mandarin had to wait until 1926 for its staged premiere, which took place not in Budapest but in Cologne. The following is from a German music journal, reporting on said premiere of the “dance pantomime,” as it was now called: “Cologne, a city of churches, monasteries and chapels... has lived to see its first true [musical] scandal. Catcalls, whistling, stamping, and booing... which did not subside even after the composer’s personal appearance, nor even after the safety curtain went down... The press, with the exception of the left, protests, the clergy of both denominations hold meetings, the mayor of the city intervenes dictatorially and bans the pantomime from the repertoire [only one performance was given]... Waves of moral outrage engulf the city....”

Incidentally, the outraged mayor of Cologne, who also subjected Bartók to a personal tongue-lashing, was none other than Konrad Adenauer, after the Second World War West Germany’s chancellor and one of the world’s most influential political leaders.

To get an idea of what was being reacted to, here is Bartók’s own précis: “Just listen to how beautiful the story is. Three thugs force a beautiful young girl to seduce men and lure them into their den, where they will be robbed. The first turns out to be poor, the second likewise, but the third is a Chinese, a good catch, as it turns out. The girl entertains him with her dance. The Mandarin’s desire is aroused. His love flares up, but the girl recoils from him. The thugs attack the Mandarin, rob him, smother him with pillows, stab him with a sword, all in vain, because the Mandarin continues watching the girl with eyes full of yearning... the girl complies with the Mandarin’s wish [i.e., for sexual consummation], whereupon he drops dead.”

Bartók’s music is of a savagery that he never again approached. As the Hungarian musicologist József Ujfalussy observed in his biography of the composer: “European art began to be populated by inhuman horrors and apocalyptic monsters. These were the creations of a world in which man’s imagination had been affected by political crises, wars, and the threat to life in all its forms... This exposure of latent horror and hidden danger and crime, together with an attempt to portray these evils in all their magnitude, was an expression of protest by 20th-century artists against the... obsolete ideals and inhumanity of contemporary civilization. [Bartók] does not see the Mandarin as a grotesque monster but rather as the personification of a primitive, barbaric force, and example of the ‘natural man’ to whom he was so strongly attracted.”

The music makes its effect through its rhythmic force and Bartók’s spectacular orchestration, which is hardly restricted to the shattering climaxes. The work is equally impressive for its eerily delicate colors, such as those associated with the girl’s dance of seduction – superbly evocative music for the solo clarinet – and the Mandarin’s quiet, almost numbed reaction to her writhings, in the form of keyboard (piano with celesta) arabesques, harp glissandos, and the ghostly tinkling of the triangle.

The present suite, which Bartók created for concert performance, encompasses roughly two-thirds of the score and it is continuous, rather than made up of bits and pieces, with a concert ending for the chase scene in which the tramps assault the Mandarin.

The first performance of the suite was given in 1928 in Budapest, under, ironically, the baton of Ernö Dohnányi. The first staged performance of The Miraculous Mandarin in Hungary did not take place until December of 1945, two months after the composer’s death.

Herbert Glass, after serving on the administrative staffs of the New York Philharmonic and the San Francisco Opera, was for 25 years a columnist-critic for the Los Angeles Times. He has been English-language editor/annotator for the Salzburg Festival since 1996.